Writing A Thesis- What is a HISTORICAL Thesis?

LU2: Writing A Thesis

Context:

Over the course of the semester we will do 3 short writing assignments which will prepare you to write a final 2 page essay for the course. Each writing assignment will ask you to create a thesis and support it with a sources from the Primary Source Boards.

Your thesis should talk about why and how an event or trend occurred in U.S. History, within the era we’ve been studying. It must have a point of view and be arguable (that is, someone else could argue it’s not true). An interpretive thesis takes a stand, and uses the primary sources as evidence to prove it.

For example:

X happened because Y happened.

Although most people believe X, closer examination of the evidence indicates Y.

During this era people experience X, because of Y.

If you like some additional information on theses, you can look at the ATTACHED FILE.

.

Writing Assignment (40 points, 35 points for your original post & 5 points for your reply):

Please create a few short paragraphs that include:

· An interpretive thesis about one or more of the eras we’ve studied so far, in bold text

· 2 primary sources from the first Primary Sources Board in chronological order, with each source related to the thesis through your own explanation

· each source named and fully cited (author/artist, title, date, live link to a page where it is featured)

· a one-sentence conclusion

Don’t have the sources you need? You may add any source to the first board at any time, so long as it is fully cited and available for all to use.

Here is a sample of an A/A+ assignment from a previous class (yours would use sources from our Primary Sources Board)

The Reconstruction Era and Black Suffrage

Sectional division played an active role in U.S. politics dating as far back as the colonization of the British in America.Due to different climates and geographic location, varying economies were developed between the North and South. The South was more agriculturally motivated and relied on the export of farmed goods to generate revenue, where the North was motivated through trade export and fishing. The South used slaves to work and even run plantations and farms, where the North did not need nor truly agree in having a slave. The differences between the North and South influenced their attitude on several issues involving the nation’s well-being, including slavery. As the sectional differences grew between the North and South, tension increased to the point that individual states could no longer create solutions, leading to the Civil War.As a result of the Civil War, Society had mixed views on the role of the federal government with respect to black suffrage and race relations during the Reconstruction Era, lending to a long road of Civil Rights for African Americans.

Congress, political parties, whites, blacks, and even the President had conflicting views on race relations, creating controversy and problems within the states. “The Freedman’s Bureau!” (1866, artist unknown, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Freedman%27s_bureau.jpg#file (Links to an external site.)), which states, “An agency to keep the Negro in idleness at the expense of the white man. Twice vetoed by the President, and made a law by Congress. Support Congress & you support the Negro Sustain the President & you protect the white man,”is one of a series of racist posters against Radical Republicans, on the topic of black suffrage. In particular, this was published during the election of a governor running on a white supremacy platform supporting Andrew Johnson, due to President Johnson vetoing the Civil Rights Bill that was enforced by Congress. There is so much going on in this poster; the white men working while the black man lounges, support congress and you are not in support of the white man, the white man must work to keep his children and pay his taxes, the list goes on and on. Basically, many felt that if you supported the “freedman” you were against the whites, that the roles were now reversed from the black slaves supporting the wealth and freedom of the white man, and that now whites were working on behalf of the blacks freedom. This poster portrays how different the views were between the government and Society as a whole with regard African American rights during the Reconstruction Era.

Despite Amendments and new laws passed by the federal government, Southern whites in society looked for any means possible to effectively eliminate the new freedoms of African Americans. The 15th Amendment to the Constitution gave African American men the right to vote stating that the, “right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” In the cartoon, “Everything Points to a Democratic Victory This Fall,” also referred to as, “White Citizen league barring Black voters,” featured in Harper’s Weekly (October 31, 1874, Jim Crown in America (Links to an external site.)), two voting lines are portrayed, one for colored people and one for whites. There is also a sign that reads “ Notice No N**** Votes here”, despite the 15th amendment and being freed from slavery, white’s did whatever they could to keep the two races separate. After the Civil War, Southern States passed discriminatory legislation known as The Black Codes of 1866 allowing for the civil rights of black citizens to be compromised.

Throughout the Reconstruction era, society had mixed views on race relations and the role of the federal government after the Civil War, as shown in “The Freedman’s Bureau,” (1866) and “Everything Points to a Democratic Victory This Fall,” (1874). However, constitutional amendments; 13 which abolished slavery, 14 which defines citizenship and protects a persons political and civil rights from being “abridged or denied by any state”, and 15 giving African Americans the right to vote, all played an integral role in pursuing African American Civil Rights.

Here are some tips:

· Make the thesis interpretive and arguable

· Avoid troublesome sources (if the citation information isn’t complete, don’t use it)

· Discuss each source so it proves the thesis instead of illustrating it

What is a HISTORICAL Thesis?

When studying history, one must quickly and easily be able to a) recognize a thesis and b) create a thesis. Historical thesis statements might be a little different than anything you’ve written before. Over the course of the semester, you will practice and become experts at writing historical thesis statements.

A thesis statement is not a fact; it is an informed interpretation of the facts. Neither is the thesis statement just an opinion. It is the reasoned judgment of the student. Most questions require a response that is not black and white, but some shade of gray. Students always need to carefully weight all of the historical evidence and then craft a response that best articulates their understanding of the historical record.

Examples of thesis statements:

Weak: The Revolutionary War brought about change in American society. This is,

technically, a position. But, it is vague and not really debatable.

Strong: The Revolutionary War ushered in a slew of wide-ranging and permanent

social changes in American society. This is a clear, strong, and debatable thesis.

Bad: George Washington set many important precedents as president. This is a fact; not a

position.

Good: The precedents that Washington set as America’s first president greatly benefited

the American political system. This is a clear position that can be supported or opposed.

Best: The precedents that Washington set as America’s first president greatly benefited

the American political system, because his stature helped offset the uncertainty of the new government. This is not only a clear position that can be supported or opposed but also contains an element of causality in it.

HELPFUL TIPS:

· A FACT IS NOT A THESIS . Facts would be used to support your argument.

· Good thesis statements are an argument that you would be able to prove. It should be a little “risky,” and involve some kind of opinion that you believe you can prove beyond a reasonable doubt.

· Avoid the words “was,” “many,” “is,” or any other passive verbs and generic descriptions. BE SPECIFIC.

· Avoid value judgments, it is not about whether you think something is good or bad.

· Good thesis statements recognize there are multiple sides to your argument. However, it shows that you can PROVE your side is RIGHT.

Sites for U.S. History 1 Primary Sources

· Digital Collections | Library of Congress (Links to an external site.)

· Smithsonian’s History Explorer (Links to an external site.)

· Docs Teach, from the National Archives (Links to an external site.)

· Smithsonian Source, from the Smithsonian Institute (Links to an external site.)

· The John Adams Library at the Boston Public Library (Links to an external site.)

· Colonial Williamsburg (Links to an external site.)

· Civil War Primary Source Documents (Links to an external site.)

· The Gilder Lehrman Collection | The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History (Links to an external site.)

· Browse The NYPL Digital Picture Collection(P) (Links to an external site.)

· Primary Source Sets | Teacher Resources – Library of Congress (Links to an external site.)

· Edison Motion Pictures Collection Part One 1891-1898 : The Edison Manufacturing Co. and Thomas A. Edison, Inc. : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive (Links to an external site.)

· About this Collection – Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies | Collections | Library of Congress (Links to an external site.)

· Photogrammar (Links to an external site.)

· Flickr: Internet Archive Book Images’ Photostream (Links to an external site.)

· Family Limitation | South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA) (Links to an external site.)

· Welcome · Digital Public Library of America (Links to an external site.)

· Periods | Collection of Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum (Links to an external site.)

· American Memory from the Library of Congress – Home Page (Links to an external site.)

· National Archives: Online Public Access (Links to an external site.)

· New York Times Article Archive – NYTimes.com (Links to an external site.)

· National Jukebox LOC.gov (Links to an external site.)

· Shorpy Historical Photo Archive | Vintage Fine Art Prints (Links to an external site.)

· Prelinger Archives : Free Movies : Download & Streaming : Internet Archive (Links to an external site.)

· Social and Cultural History: Letters and Diaries Online (Links to an external site.)

· American History In Video: Browse Newsreels (Links to an external site.)

· Collection | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

1

New Spain, New France & R k& Roanoke

Early Colonies in North America

I. What kind of an empire did the Spanish create in the New World, and why did it extend into North America?

II. What was the French role in the beginnings of the North

Key Topics

g g American fur trade?

III. Why did England enter the race for the colonies?

IV. In what ways were the Spanish, French, and English colonies in North America similar? In what ways were they different?y

V. What growing pains did the Spanish, French and English colonies experience around 1680?

The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to

conquest in the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

The Invasion of America In the sixteenth century, the Spanish first invaded the Caribbean and used it to stage their

successive wars of conquest in North and South America. In the seventeenth century, the French, English, and Dutch invaded the Atlantic coast. The Russians, sailing across the northern Pacific,

mounted the last of the colonial invasions in the eighteenth century.

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The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to

conquest in the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North America

The First Europeans in North America

In 1539, Hernan DeSoto traveled throughout South, di di h d l d d k d spreading disease that depopulated and weakened

Indian societies. Europeans were searching for slaves and the rumored cities of wealth.

In 1539, Francisco de Coronado searched for lost cities of gold in Southwest.g

Explorers failed to find great cities and turned back. This failure would sour the Spanish on North America (outside of Florida) for almost 50 years.

European Exploration, 1492-1591

By the mid-sixteenth century, Europeans had

explored most of the Atlantic coast of North

America and penetrated into the interior in the

disastrous expeditions of de Soto and Coronado.

The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to

conquest in the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North America

III. Spain’s colonies would be the largest, wealthiest and most sophisticated for centuries to come.

3

The Spanish New World Empire I

By late sixteenth century, the Spanish had a powerful American empire It was comprised of a number of colonies lead by New empire. It was comprised of a number of colonies lead by New Spain (based around the former Aztec empire)

250,000 Europeans and 125,000 Africans lived in Spanish colonies.

The Population under their control was large (probably 4 million in New Spain alone) and was racially mixed.

B th S i h b d ‘f ti f i l i ’ d t Because the Spanish embraced a ‘frontier of inclusion’ does not mean they were not racially biased. They created very clear distinctions on how much

Council of the Indies governed out of Spain, but local military governors appointed by the King generally had autonomy.

European Voyages of Discovery and the Colonial Claims of Spain and Portugal in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Notice Columbus never reaches the North American

Continent during any of his 4 voyages, but rather only the Caribbean.

The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to

conquest in the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North America

III. Spain’s colonies would be the largest, wealthiest and most sophisticated for centuries to come.

IV. But other European countries, especially France, were p , p y , beginning to explore North America by the middle of the 16th century.

Fish and Furs

Abundant fish in Grand Banks of North Atlantic led Abundant fish in Grand Banks of North Atlantic led Europeans to explore North American coastal waters.

French were first to explore eastern North American and established claims to lands of Canada.

European‐Indian relations based on trade, especially furs.

Disease and wars over hunting grounds reduced Indian populations.

Indians became dependent on European manufactured goods.

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A Mikmaq Indian petroglyph or rock carving depicting a European vessel and crew, photographed in 1946 at Kejimkujik National Park, Nova Scotia, by Arthur and Olive Kelsall, who traced the lines of the image with white ink to enhance the contrast. The vessel appears to be a small pinnace with lanteen sails, similar to those used by French merchants and explorers in the early seventeenth century. Living along the southern shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence on the Acadian peninsula, the Mikmaqs were among the first natives in North America to establish contact with European traders, and understanding immediately the value of iron and textiles, they soon developed a

system of coastal barter.

The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to

conquest in the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North America

III. Spain’s colonies would be the largest, wealthiest and most sophisticated for centuries to come.

IV. But other European countries, especially France, were p , p y , beginning to explore North America by the middle of the 16th century. A. North America was seen as far enough away from Spain to

possibly be safe from Spanish attacks

The Protestant Reformation and the First French Colonies

Protestant John Calvin followers in France were called Huguenots.g

Huguenots were largely merchants and members of the middle class. Huguenots planted first French colonies in South Carolina and Florida in an effort to find religious refuge.

French enjoyed good relations with Indians.

Spanish destroyed French colony in Florida.

This made it clear to other European powers that in the future if they wanted to found colonies in the new world it would have to be farther north

This watercolor, painted in 1564, depicts the friendly relations between the Timucuas of coastal Florida and the colonists of the short-lived French colony of Fort Caroline. The

Timucuas hoped that the French would help defend them against the Spanish, who plundered the coast in pursuit of Indian slaves.

.

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The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to conquest in

the Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North Americasouth they also began to explore North America

III. Spain’s colonies would be the largest, wealthiest and most sophisticated for centuries to come.

IV. But other European countries, especially France, were beginning to explore North America by the middle of the 16th century.

A N th A i f h f S i t A. North America was seen as far enough away from Spain to possibly be safe from Spanish attacks

V. The English, who had also been exploring the coastline of North America, began to try and found colonies in the late 16th century

The Invasion of America In the sixteenth century, the Spanish first invaded the Caribbean and used it to stage their

successive wars of conquest in North and South America. In the seventeenth century, the French, English, and Dutch invaded the Atlantic coast. The Russians, sailing across the northern Pacific,

mounted the last of the colonial invasions in the eighteenth century.

The Roanoke Colony

Colony off the North Carolina coast founded by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1585

It was conceived by both Raleigh and the English It was conceived by both Raleigh and the English government as a money making enterprise

Goal was to find wealth: furs, gold or silver, and plantation agriculture and Indians were seen as laborers.

Very inappropriate people were sent, almost no farmers. But there was a goldsmith, a perfumer, and a jeweler.

C fli i h Al i hi h l i d i h h Conflict with Algonquians, which culminated with the local tribal leader, Wigina, being beheaded, led to abandonment of colony by English less than a year later.

European Colonies of the Atlantic Coast, 1607–39

Virginia, on Chesapeake Bay, was the first English colony in

North America, but by the mid-seventeenth century,

Virginia was joined by settlements of Scandinavianssettlements of Scandinavians

on the Delaware River and Dutch on the Hudson River, as well as English religious dissenters in New England.

The territories indicated here reflect the vague boundaries

of the early colonies.

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The Colonization of the Americas I. By 1520, early Spanish exploration had turned to conquest in the

Caribbean and was beginning in Mesoamerica

II. As Spain was beginning to found its colonies in central and south they also began to explore North Americay g p

III. Spain’s colonies would be the largest, wealthiest and most sophisticated for centuries to come.

IV. But other European countries, especially France, were beginning to explore North America by the middle of the 16th century.

A. North America was seen as far enough away from Spain to possibly be safe from Spanish attacks

V. The English, who had also been exploring the coastline of North America, began to try and found colonies in the late 16th century

VI. By the end of the century Europeans had a good idea what the Americas looked like for the first time

European Exploration of the Americas

In the century after Columbus came to the Americas, Europeans had explored:

most of the Atlantic coast of North America; much of the Pacific coast of North America; and the interior of southeastern and southwestern N th A iNorth America.

European Exploration, 1492-1591

By the mid-sixteenth century, Europeans had

explored most of the Atlantic coast of North

America and penetrated into the interior in theinto the interior in the

disastrous expeditions of de Soto and Coronado.

North American Colonies I. Just before 1600 the Spanish once again became

interested in founding colonies in North America I. This was spurred on by Franciscan monks bringing back

word of wealthy Indian empires to the northword of wealthy Indian empires to the north

II. Although they never found wealth, the Franciscans got the king of Spain to order the conquistadors to stay and found New Mexico

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New Mexico

Spanish came to Rio Grande valley in 1598 on a Spanish came to Rio Grande valley in 1598 on a quest to mine gold and souls.

Brutally put down Indian resistance

Colony of New Mexico centered around Santa Fe.

The Spanish depended on forced Indian labor for p p modest farming and sheep raising.

New Mexico in the Seventeenth Century By the end of the seventeenth century, New Mexico numbered 3,000 colonial settlers in several towns, surrounded by an estimated 50,000 Pueblo Indians living in some fifty

farming villages. The isolation and sense of danger among the Hispanic settlers are

evident in their name for the road linking theevident in their name for the road linking the colony with New Spain, Jornada del Muerto,

“Road of Death.”

Acoma Pueblo, the “sky city,” was founded in the thirteenth century and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited sites in the United States. In 1598, Juan de Ońate attacked

and laid waste to the pueblo, killing some 800 inhabitants and enslaving another 500. North American Colonies

I. Just before 1600 the Spanish once again became interested in founding colonies in North America I. This was spurred on by Franciscan monks bringing back

word of wealthy Indian empires to the northword of wealthy Indian empires to the north

II. Although they never found wealth, the Franciscans got the king of Spain to order the conquistadors to stay and found New Mexico

III. As the decades past the Pueblo Indians came to growing resent Spanish rule and eventually revoltedresent Spanish rule and eventually revolted

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The Pueblo Revolt of 1680

In Santa Fe, the Pueblos clashed with Spanish p authorities over religious practices.

In 1680, Pope, a Pueblo priest, led a successful revolt that temporarily ended Spanish rule.

In 1692, Spanish regained control, loosening religious restrictions and labor demands on the Native Americans.

Pueblos observed Catholicism in churches and Pueblos observed Catholicism in churches and missionaries tolerated traditional practices away from the mission

Of all the Indian revolts in North America, this one had the most positive long term impact

North American Colonies I. Just before 1600 the Spanish once again became

interested in founding colonies in North America I. This was spurred on by Franciscan monks bringing back

word of wealthy Indian empires to the northword of wealthy Indian empires to the north

II. Although they never found wealth, the Franciscans got the king of Spain to order the conquistadors to stay and found New Mexico

III. As the decades past the Pueblo Indians came to growing resent Spanish rule and eventually revoltedresent Spanish rule and eventually revolted

IV. Just after 1600 the French establish their first lasting presence in the Americas

New France In 1605, French set up an outpost on the Bay of Fundy to monopolize fur trade.

Samuel de Champlain was leader and allied with Hurons against h

p g the Iroquois.

To exploit fur trade, French lived throughout region. Only French Catholics were permitted

Quebec City was administrative center of vast French colonial empire.

French had society of inclusion, intermarried with Indians.e c ad soc ety o c us o , te a ed t d a s. Formed alliances with Indians rather than conquering Missionaries attempted to learn more about Indian customs

This was done not out of greater tolerance but out of necessity. Ask yourself how the area the French colonized differed from the areas colonized by the Spanish?

New France in the Seventeenth Century

By the late seventeenth century, French settlements

were spread from the town of Port Royal in

Acadia to the post and p mission at Sault Ste. Marie on the Great

Lakes. But the heart of New France comprised

the communities stretching along the St.

Lawrence River between the towns of Quebec and Montreal.

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This illustration, taken from Samuel de Champlain’s 1613 account of the founding of New France, depicts him joining the Huron attack on the Iroquois in 1609. The French and their Huron allies

controlled access to the great fur grounds of the West. The Iroquois then formed an alliance of their own with the Dutch, who had founded a trading colony on the Hudson River. The palm trees in the

background of this drawing suggest that it was not executed by an eyewitness, but rather by an illustrator more familiar with South American scenes.

The Invasion of America In the sixteenth century, the Spanish first invaded the Caribbean and used it to stage their

successive wars of conquest in North and South America. In the seventeenth century, the French, English, and Dutch invaded the Atlantic coast. The Russians, sailing across the northern Pacific,

mounted the last of the colonial invasions in the eighteenth century.

North American Colonies I. Just before 1600 the Spanish once again became interested in

founding colonies in North America I. This was spurred on by Franciscan monks bringing back word of

wealthy Indian empires to the northy p

II. Although they never found wealth, the Franciscans got the king of Spain to order the conquistadors to stay and found New Mexico

III. As the decades past the Pueblo Indians came to growing resent Spanish rule and eventually revolted

IV. Just after 1600 the French establish their first lasting presence in the Americas

V. The Dutch also were interested in profiting from North America and founded a colony on the island of Manhattan

New Amsterdam

Upon achieving independence the United Upon achieving independence, the United Provinces of the Netherlands developed a global commercial empire.

Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company

In present‐day New York, the Dutch established settlements, Dutch opened trade with the I i Iroquois.

Iroquois, through warfare, became the important middlemen of the fur trade with the Dutch.

1

Pepper, Columbus and th R f tithe Reformation Colonizing Europe

I. Why explore then (and why was it Europeans)?

II. The Reformation and it consequences for colonization.

Th l f l l f C l b M ll

Key Topics

III. The role of early explorers: from Columbus to Magellan

IV. Colonization and the conquest of the Americas

V. In what ways did the exchange of peoples, crops, animals, and diseases shape the experience of European colonists and American natives?

Why was it the Europeans out exploring? I. It was not because they were technologically more

advanced A. Columbus’ 3 ships in 1492 ~85 feet long, a Chinese

expedition around 1400 about 300 ships up to 400 feet longexpedition around 1400 about 300 ships up to 400 feet long B. Most of the innovations on European ships were borrowed

from other cultures: compass & gunpowder (China), Astrolabe (Persia), Lateen sail (Arabia)

The astrolabe, an instrument used for determining the precise position of heavenly bodies, was introduced

into early modern Europe by the Arabs. This is one of the earliest

examples, an intricately engraved brass astrolabe produced by a

master craftsman in Syria in themaster craftsman in Syria in the thirteenth century.

2

Why was it the Europeans out exploring? I. It was not because they were technologically more advanced

A. Columbus’ 3 ships in 1492 ~85 feet long, a Chinese expedition around 1400 about 300 ships up to 400 feet long

B. Most of the innovations on European ships were borrowed from other cultures: compass & gunpowder (China), Astrolabe other cultures: compass & gunpowder (China), Astrolabe (Persia), Lateen sail (Arabia)

II. Key factor: need. The Europeans wanted what other areas had, spices (the role of the Crusades), silk, ornate furniture and vases, much more than other areas wanted what the Europeans had

A. Also, leading these expeditions were merchants and in Europe merchants tended to be wealthier and have a higher social status that in other cultures that in other cultures

III. As for why then, between about 1350‐1500 it becomes increasingly hard to get these goods from Muslim merchants

A. This inspires profit seeking merchants to explore B. Population is also rising and monarchies are becoming stronger

Medieval Trade Routes and Regional Products. Trade in Europe varied in intensity and geographical extent in different periods

during the Middle Ages. The map shows some of the h l th t t bchannels that came to be

used in interregional commerce.

Although many of these items were important, the

most lucrative and significant were spices like

pepper and cinnamon. Acquired from Arab

merchants (who had in turnmerchants (who had in turn traded for them in Asia),

they could be worth enormous sums when

brought to Europe. It is said that a pound of pepper was

worth its weight in gold.

Early Explorations I. Key goal of the explorers: find an alternative route (by

water) to Asia

II. Starting around 1400 the Portuguese head down to coast g 4 g of Africa

III. Columbus tries to find backers in Italy and Portugal for his voyage and fails, because they think he will fail.

A. Eventually the Spanish monarchs fund his voyage since they are hoping to catch‐up with the Portuguese

Columbus bids farewell to the monarchs Isabel and Ferdinand at the port of Palos in August 1492, illustrated in a copperplate engraving published in 1594. While armed men are ferried out to the vessels, three accountants in a room directly above the monarchs count out

the gold to fund the journey.

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Early Explorations I. Key goal of the explorers: find an alternative route (by water,

why?) to Asia

II. Starting around 1400 the Portuguese head down to coast of AfricaAfrica

III. Columbus tries to find backers in Italy and Portugal for his voyage and fails, why?

A. Eventually the Spanish monarchs fund his voyage since they are hoping to catch‐up with the Portuguese

IV. A desire to expand Christianity also drives some monarchs to support explorationsupport exploration

A. Although for many of the merchants/explorers/conquerors, this was a distant second to making money

V. In the end Columbus makes 4 voyages to what he believes is India

European Voyages of Discovery and the Colonial Claims of Spain and Portugal in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Notice Columbus never reaches the North American

Continent during any of his 4 voyages, but rather only the Caribbean.

Early Explorations I. Key goal of the explorers: find an alternative route (by water,

why?) to Asia

II. Starting around 1400 the Portuguese head down to coast of Africa

III. Columbus tries to find backers in Italy and Portugal for his voyage and fails, why?

A. Eventually the Spanish monarchs fund his voyage since they are hoping to catch‐up with the Portuguese

IV. A desire to expand Christianity also drives some monarchs to support exploration

A Although for many of the merchants/explorers/conquerors this A. Although for many of the merchants/explorers/conquerors, this was a distant second to making money

V. In the end Columbus makes 4 voyages to what he believes is India

A. They start out trading, then converting and eventually conquest.

This image accompanied

Columbus’s account of his voyage, which was published in Latin and reissued in many other languages and editions

that circulatedthat circulated throughout Europe before 1500. The

Spanish King Ferdinand is shown directing the voyage to a tropical island, where the

natives flee in terror. Columbus’s impression

f N ti A iof Native Americans as a people vulnerable to conquest shows clearly

in this image.

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Religion as a cause of colonization I. Europe is relatively religiously unified in 1500, but that is

shattered by 1530 because of the Protestant Reformation I. Over time religious differences/persecution will become

an important motivation behind colonizationan important motivation behind colonization

II. The origins of the Reformation were the teachings and beliefs of Martin Luther

III. Lutheranism comes to challenge many of the most fundamental beliefs of the Catholic church …

I. His ideas spread through writings, and eventually some preachers quickly around Europe

II. No clergy, no hierarchy, just the Bible (in vernacular

Lutheranism

gy y j languages)

Martin Luther’s German Bible Translated by Luther and several other into German and published in 1534.

I. His ideas spread through writings, and eventually some preachers quickly around Europe

II. No clergy, no hierarchy, just the Bible (in vernacular

Lutheranism

gy y j languages)

III. Opposes unnecessary ritual, pomp of Catholic ceremonies

5

Baroque and Plain Church: Architectural Reflections of Belief Contrast between an eighteenth-century Catholic baroque church in Ottobeuren, Bavaria and a seventeenth-

century Calvinist plain church in the Palatinate. The Catholic church pops with sculptures, paintings, and ornamentation,

while the Calvinist church has been stripped of every possible decoration.

Vanni/Art Resource, NY

I. His ideas spread through writings, and eventually some preachers quickly around Europe

II. No clergy, no hierarchy, just the Bible (in vernacular l )

Lutheranism

languages)

III. Opposes unnecessary ritual, pomp of Catholic ceremonies

IV. Secular rulers (who in Luther’s view were God’s chosen leaders) intimately involved in regulating religious behavior

V. His message appeals more to city dwellers and the literateV. His message appeals more to city dwellers and the literate

VI. Spreads to some areas of Germany and Scandinavia

Religion as a cause of colonization I. Europe is relatively religiously unified in 1500, but that is

shattered by 1530 because of the Protestant Reformation I. Over time religious differences/persecution will

become an important motivation behind become an important motivation behind colonization

II. The origins of the Reformation were the teachings and beliefs of Martin Luther

III. Lutheranism comes to challenge many of the most fundamental beliefs of the Catholic church fundamental beliefs of the Catholic church …

IV. and soon Europe begins to religiously fragment

THE RELIGIOUS SITUATION ABOUT

1560 By 1560, Luther, Zwingli, and Loyola were dead,

Calvin was near the end of his life the Englishof his life, the English break from Rome was complete, and the last

session of the Council of Trent was about to

assemble. This map shows “religious

geography” of western Europe at the time.

6

Religion as a cause of colonization I. Europe is relatively religiously unified in 1500, but that is

shattered by 1530 because of the Protestant Reformation I. Over time religious differences/persecution will become

an important motivation behind colonizationp

II. The origins of the Reformation were the teachings and beliefs of Martin Luther

III. Lutheranism comes to challenge many of the most fundamental beliefs of the Catholic church …

IV and soon Europe begins to religiously fragmentIV. and soon Europe begins to religiously fragment

V. England will eventually break from the Catholic church as well, but long term divisions over exactly how ‘protestant’ it should be will cause tension and spark colonization

I. Henry originally opposed to Luther’s message

II. His problem of succession, desperately needs a male heir

b k i h h P d f d h A li

The English Reformation

III. 1533‐34 breaks with the Papacy and found the Anglican (English) Church

Henry VIII (1491-1547) Even though Henry was a

decisive and strong leader, his dramatic changes to the way that English people were supposed to

worship cause conflict.

In 1536, about 4 years after he broke with the Papacy and began the Anglican church, Henry also

began to dissolve England’s monasteries, partly because he believed they were inappropriate but mostly for the money. This

caused a popular uprising, called the Pilgrimage of Grace in thethe Pilgrimage of Grace, in the

north of England which took about nine months to suppress.

I. Henry originally opposed to Luther’s message

II. His problem of succession, desperately needs a male heir

b k i h h P d f d h A li

The English Reformation

III. 1533‐34 breaks with the Papacy and found the Anglican (English) Church

IV. How far is too far, supporters of John Calvin in England (Puritans) want to eliminate all Catholic elements from the English Church?

7

John Calvin (1509-1564). Born in France, Calvin was

growing up when the debate over Luther and his ideas was taking

place. Initially educated as a lawyer, Calvin became one of the

strongest advocates from g Protestant reform.

Because of his ideas and writings he was eventually forced to flee an

growingly tense France for Geneva, Switzerland. Calvin’s

theology, such as predestination, and his ideas on how to practically structure a church in the absence

of Catholicism (pastors forof Catholicism (pastors for sacraments, doctors for teaching, elders for discipline and deacons for helping the needy) made his

branch of Protestantism particularly popular and his followers very

effective as missionaries.

I. Henry originally opposed to Luther’s message

II. His problem of succession, desperately needs a male heir

III. 1533‐34 breaks with the Papacy and found the Anglican (E li h) Ch h

The English Reformation

(English) Church

IV. How far is too far, supporters of John Calvin in England (Puritans) want to eliminate all Catholic elements from the English Church?

V. Two of Henry’s children Edward VI and Mary try and fail to move the Anglican church

VI. Elizabeth long reign, of religious moderation, helps establish the key principals

A. There are a growing number of those favoring a more Calvinist ‘pure’ church in England ‐> Puritans

Elizabeth I (1558–1603) Standing on a Map of England in 1592.

An astute, if sometimes erratic, politician in foreign and domestic policy, Elizabeth was

one of the most successful rulers of the sixteenth century.

One of the characteristics which made her successful was that it times of religious turmoil, she was a moderate, generally

charting a course which appealed to a majority of her subjects. She rejected the extreme

positions of her brother and sister and instead backed and Anglican church which was

Protestant but had elements of Catholicism remaining.

8

Conquest I. Amerigo Vespucci: from ‘Indians’ to the New World

II. Within a few decades trade turns to conquest A. At least where practical, the Americas and costal Africa. In p ,

parts of Asia, with its larger empires, or central Africa, with its diseases, trade continues

Spanish adventurers attack a native village on the Columbian coast of the Caribbean in search of the gold said to be stored there, an engraving published in 1594 by Theodore de Bry. This attack of 1509 began at dawn, when the residents awoke to find their houses on fire. They attempted to flee,

but were cut down by swords as they ran from their homes. Several hundred died, with few survivors. When the ashes had cooled the Spanish looked for gold, but found little. Images like this, widely circulated in Europe and England, helped create the “Black Legend” of the Spanish

conquest.

Conquest I. Amerigo Vespucci: from ‘Indians’ to the New World

II. Within a few decades trade turns to conquest A. At least where practical, the Americas and costal Africa. In p ,

parts of Asia, with its larger empires, or central Africa, with its diseases, trade continues

III. By 1520 the Caribbean had been conquered

The Cruelties Used by the Spaniards on the Indians, from a 1599 English edition of The Destruction of the Indies by Bartolomé de las Casas.

These scenes were copied from a series of engravings produced by Theodore de Bry that accompanied an earlier edition. Although some of this violence may have been exaggerated

to encourage the Spanish Monarchy to intervene, much of it was accurate. Many conquistadores as well as Spanish Church officials regarded the Native Americans as sub-

human, and hence any resistance to conversion and control was met with extreme violence. It should be noted that indigenous people around the globe were not treated much better by

th b th Eother by many other Europeans.

9

Conquest I. Amerigo Vespucci: from ‘Indians’ to the New World

II. Within a few decades trade turns to conquest A. At least where practical, the Americas and costal Africa. In p ,

parts of Asia, with its larger empires, or central Africa, with its diseases, trade continues

III. By 1520 the Caribbean had been conquered

IV. Hernan Cortez, heads west and is able to conquer the Aztec empire (of possibly 10 million people) with only p ( p y p p ) y 1000 soldiers in about 3 years

This map of Tenochititlán, published in 1524 and attributed to the celebrated engraver Albrecht Dürer, shows the city before its destruction, with the principal Aztec temples in the main square, causeways connecting the city to the mainland, and an acqueduct supplying fresh water. The

information on this map must have come from Aztec sources, as did much of the intelligence Cortés relied on for the Spanish conquest.

Smallpox. Introduced by Europeans to the Americas, smallpox had a devastating effect on Native American populations. It swept through the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán soon after the Spaniards arrived, contributing to the fall of the city. This illustration of the effect of the plague in the Aztec capital is

from a post conquest history known as the Florentine Codex compiled for Spanish church authorities by Aztec survivors.

North America’s Indian and Colonial Populations in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

The primary factor in the decimation of native peoples was epidemic disease, brought to the New World from the Old. In the eighteenth century, the colonial population overtook North America’s

Indian populations.

10

Conquest I. Amerigo Vespucci: from ‘Indians’ to the New World

II. Within a few decades trade turns to conquest A. At least where practical, the Americas and costal Africa. In p ,

parts of Asia, with its larger empires, or central Africa, with its diseases, trade continues

III. By 1520 the Caribbean had been conquered

IV. Hernan Cortez, heads west and is able to conqueor the Aztec empire (of possibly 10 million people) with only p ( p y p p ) y 1000 soldiers in about 3 years

V. By 1530 New Spain is established and becomes the centerpiece of Spain’s empire

Viceroyalties in Latin America in the 18th century.

Spain organized its vast holdings in the New World into Viceroyalties,

each of which had its own governor and other administrative officials.

Although officially under the control of the home country most of theof the home country , most of the decisions were made by locals,

either peninsulares (people born in Europe who had relocated to the Americas) or Creoles (people of

European descent born in the new world). Just as in the British

colonies, eventually these local leaders come to have divergent

i t t f th l d i thinterests from those leaders in the home country.

Conquest I. Amerigo Vespucci: from ‘Indians’ to the New World

II. Within a few decades trade turns to conquest A. At least where practical, the Americas and costal Africa. In

f A i i h i l i l Af i i h parts of Asia, with its larger empires, or central Africa, with its diseases, trade continues

III. By 1520 the Caribbean had been conquered

IV. Hernan Cortez, heads west and is able to conqueor the Aztec empire (of possibly 10 million people) with only 1000 soldiers in about 3 years1000 soldiers in about 3 years

V. By 1530 New Spain is established and becomes the centerpiece of Spain’s empire

VI. The Columbian exchange begins across the Atlantic

The Columbian Exchange

E h b Old d N W ld dExchanges between Old and New Worlds occurred. European diseases decimated Indian populations. American precious metals

Runaway inflation Stimulated commerce Lowered standard of living for most Europeans

American crops to Europe– corn, potatoes, cotton, chocolate, tobacco European crops to America—wheat, sugar, rice, horses, cattle

11

The Columbian Exchange Europeans voyaging between Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries began a vast intercontinental movement of plants, animals, and diseases that shaped the course of modern history. New World corn and potatoes became staple foods in Africa and Europe, while Eurasian and African diseases such as smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever devastated native

communities in the Western Hemisphere.

1

Migration, Mississippians, Di it & ChDiversity & Change Pre‐Columbian America

Key Topics I. How were the Americas first settled?

II. What were the consequences of the development of farming for native communities?g

III. In what ways did groups like the Mississippians and Iroquois represent the ideas of diversity and change?

The Settling of the Americas I. The migration hypothesis

A. When and how did humans arrive in North America?

Migration from Asia

The Importance of historical uncertainty.p y

New genetic research links American Indians and northwest Asians.

Beringia land bridge between Siberia and Alaska

Glaciers locked up enough water to lower sea levels, creating grasslands 750 miles wide from north to south.

2

Migration Routes from Asia to America During the Ice Age, Asia and North America were joined where the Bering Straits are today, forming a migration route for hunting peoples. Either by boat along the coast, or through a narrow corridor between the huge northern

glaciers, these migrants began making their way to the heartland of the continent as much as 30,000 years ago.

Migration from Asia

The Importance of historical uncertainty.

New genetic research links American Indians and northwest Asians.

Beringia land bridge between Siberia and Alaska Glaciers locked up enough water to lower sea levels, creating grasslands 750 miles wide from north to south.

Three migrations from Asia beginning about 15,000 or 20,000 or possibly 30,000 years ago

Traveled by land (ice‐free corridor) and along coast

The Settling of the Americas I. The migration hypothesis

A. When and how did humans arrive in North America? II. Life as a Paleo‐Indian

The Life of a Paleo‐Indian

Much of North America was a vast forest.

Survival depended on: small‐game hunting; gathering seeds, nuts, roots, and other plants; and fishing.

Populations grew and settlements became permanent.

Men and women held different roles, but probably not as differentiated as in more developed societies.

3

The Settling of the Americas I. Who are these Indians?

II. The migration hypothesis A. When and how did humans arrive in North America?

III. Life as a Paleo‐Indian

IV. The beginning of settled agriculture in the Americas A. Misconceptions about farming, and how it spread

Mexico People living in central Mexico developed farming of maize (corn) about 5 000 years agoof maize (corn) about 5,000 years ago.

Other American crops included potatoes, beans, squash, tomatoes, peppers, avocados, chocolate, and vanilla.

Agriculture stimulated sedentary lifestyle and rise of large, urban complexes.

Mesoamerican civilizations were characterized by an elite class of rulers and priests, monumental public works, and systems of mathematics and hieroglyphic writing.

Mesoamerican maize cultivation, as illustrated by an Aztec artist for the Florentine Codex, a book prepared a few years after the Spanish conquest.Spanish conquest. The peoples of Mesoamerica developed a greater variety of cultivated crops than those found in any other region in the world, and their agriculturalagricultural productivity helped sustain one of the world’s great civilizations.

The Resisted Revolution

Adoption of farming was a gradual process.

Climate, abundant food sources, and cultural values sometimes led to rejection of farming.

People often adopted farming simply as a way to increase food production.

Foraging could provide more varied diet, was less influenced by climate and required less workinfluenced by climate, and required less work.

Studies have shown that farmers were more subject to different diseases and famine than foragers.

Favorable climate was pivotal to the adoption of farming.

4

The Settling of the Americas I. Who are these Indians?

II. The migration hypothesis A. When and how did humans arrive in North America?

III. Life as a Paleo‐Indian

IV. The beginning of settled agriculture in the Americas A. Misconceptions about farming, and how it spread B. Consequences of the Neolithic/Agricultural Revolution

Increasing Social Complexity

Farming stimulated increasing social complexity.

Families were grouped into clans that bound people together into a tribe.

Tribes were led by clan leaders of chiefs and advised by councils of elders.

Chiefs were responsible for collection, storage, and distribution of food.

Gender strictly divided laborGender strictly divided labor.

Marriage ties were generally weak.

Growing populations required larger food surpluses and led to war.

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America

Indian Groups in the Areas of First Contact The Southwest was populated by desert farmers like the Pimas, Tohono O’Odhams, Yumans, and Pueblos, as well as by nomadic hunters and raiders like the Apaches and Navajos. On the eve of

colonization, the Indian societies of the South shared many traits of the complex Mississippian farming culture. The Indians of the Northwest were mostly village peoples. In the fifteenth century,

five Iroquois groups—the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas—joined together to form the Iroquois Five Nation Confederacy.

5

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America A. Interaction and trade

Native North American Culture Areas and Trade Networks, ca. 1400 CE All peoples must adjust their diet, shelter, and other material aspects of their lives to the physical conditions of the world around them. By considering the ways in which Indian peoples developed

distinct cultures and adapted to their environments, anthropologists developed the concept of “culture areas.”

By determining the origin of artifacts found at ancient sites, historians have devised a conjectural map of Indian trade networks. Among large regional centers and smaller local ones, trade

connected Indian peoples of many different communities and regions.

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America A. Interaction and trade B. Warfare in pre‐Columbian America

II. The Mississippians: urban life comes to North America

Mississippian Society

Introduction of bow and arrow Introduction of bow and arrow, development of new maize variety (which ripened faster and grew larger), and switch from digging sticks to hoes were basis of Mississippian culture.

D l d hi ti t d i f iDeveloped sophisticated maize farming Centered around permanent villages on Mississippi River floodplain, with Cahokia as urban center

Linked by river transportation system.

6

Several artifacts recovered from the great mound at Cahokia. Both of these objects share a common imagery with Mesoamerican cultures and are some

of the evidence that the two interacted.

The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, the shape of an uncoiling snake more than 1,300 feet long, is the largest effigy earthwork in the world. Monumental public works like these suggest the

high degree of social organization of the Mississippian people.

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America A. Interaction and trade B. Warfare in pre‐Columbian America

II. The Mississippians: urban life comes to North America III. Cahokia as an example of change

Cahokia: Thirteenth Century Life on the Mississippi

An urban complex along the Mississippi that An urban complex along the Mississippi that flourished from the tenth to the fourteenth century

Populated by about 30,000 people by mid‐1200 Farmers with highly productive cultivation techniques Craftsmen producing goods for continent‐wide trade

7

This bottle in the shape of a nursing mother (dated about 1300 BCE) was found at a Mississippian site. Historians can only speculate about the thoughts and feelings of the Mississippians, but such works of art are testimonialsworks of art are testimonials to the universal human emotion of maternal affection.

It also demonstrates the level of artistic skill that could develop in larger scale native societies supported by farmingby farming.

Cahokia: Thirteenth Century Life on the Mississippi

An urban complex along the Mississippi that flourished p g pp from the tenth to the fourteenth century

Populated by about 30,000 people by mid‐1200 Farmers with highly productive cultivation techniques Craftsmen producing goods for continent‐wide trade

Center of long‐distance trading system

City‐state sponsored by tribute and taxationy p y Mounds were monuments to the elite Priests and governors could look down on people

Huge temple showcased city wealth and power

(above) An artist’s reconstruction of what

Cahokia may have looked like at its heights during the 13th century. Notice the walls which surround the city, they were over a

mile in diametermile in diameter.

(below) A current photograph of the great

mound of Cahokia.

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America A. Interaction and trade B. Warfare in pre‐Columbian America

II. The Mississippians: urban life comes to North America III. Cahokia as an example of change IV. The Iroquois and Algonquian Indians were the dominant

groups along the east coast of North America and would be the ones to first extensively interact with the British.

8

The Iroquois vs. Algonquians The Algonquians:

Comprised at least 50 distinct, patrilineal cultures d b d h l h ff lWere organized into bands with loose ethnic affiliation in

north Farmed and lived in villages in south

The Iroquois: Lived in present‐day Ontario and upstate New York Grew corn, beans, squash,and sunflowers Matrilineal family lineage centered around longhouses Formed confederacy to eliminate warfare

This deerskin cape, embroidered with shells by an Indian craftsman, is thought to be the chief’s mantle that Powhatan, leader of a confederacy of Algonquian villages in the Chesapeake region gaveChesapeake region, gave to an English captain as part of an exchange of presents in 1608. The animal effigies are suggestive of the complex religious beliefs centering on the relationship of hunters to their prey.

A reconstruction of an Iroquois village, including its distinctive longhouses. Their size allowed for very large and extended families to live under one roof and generally under the authority of a

matriarch. In Iroquois society when a couple got married the man moved in with his wife’s family, rather than the other way around.

Diversity & Change: Native Americans in the Centuries before Columbus

I. The range of Native American cultures in North America A. Interaction and trade B. Warfare in pre‐Columbian America

II. The Mississippians: urban life comes to North America III. Cahokia as an example of change IV. The Iroquois and Algonquian Indians were the dominant

groups along the east coast of North America and would be the ones to first extensively interact with the British.

V. North America on the eve of colonization

9

The Population of Indian America

The population of the Western Hemisphere in e popu at o o t e este e sp e e the fifteenth century may have numbered 50 million or more.

Population varied by cultural region. Largest populations were centered in Southwest, South and Northeast—culture areas where first South, and Northeast culture areas where first encounters with Europeans occurred.

Population Density of Indian Societies in the Fifteenth Century Based on what is called the “carrying capacity” of different subsistence strategies—the population

density they could support-historical demographers have mapped the hypothetical population density of Indian societies in the fifteenth century, before the era of European colonization.

Populations were densest in farming societies or in coastal areas with marine resources and sparest in extreme environments like the Great Basin.

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