Activity 1 Look at the excerpts below from published articles in which sources are synthesized. A. Increasingly, colleges and universities recognize the
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Look at the excerpts below from published articles in which sources are synthesized.
A. Increasingly, colleges and universities recognize the importance of expanding student
learning and development outcomes to include global, international, and intercultural
(GII) competencies (Brown & Jones, 2007; Burnett & Huisman, 2010; de Wit, 1995;
Greenhotlz, 2000; Hammer, Bennett, & Wiseman, 2003; Kimmel & Volet, 2012;
Lambert, 1996; Lee, Poch, Shaw, & Williams, 2012). [taken from Soria & Troisi, 2014]
B. Rexeisen, Anderson, Lawton, and Hubbard (2008) further discovered that study abroad experiences have a positive impact on students’ intercultural development, although they
found the benefits to be immediate and not necessarily long term [taken from Soria & Troisi, 2014]
C. According to Shaftel, Shaftel, and Ahluwalia (2007), cost can be a major barrier to students desiring to study abroad, especially for students who may lack resources for the additional costs associated with study abroad. [taken from Louie & Qin, 2017]
D. The use of a reporting verb to introduce the work of other researchers is also a significant rhetorical choice (Hunston, 1993; Thomas and Hawes, 1994; Thompson and Ye, 1991). [taken from Hyland, 1999]
1. Compare excerpts B and C to excerpts A and D. In what ways do they differ?
2. When might you choose to use an integral citation (in which the authors’ names are a part of your sentence, as in B or C)? When might you choose to use non-integral citations (in which the authors’ names are included only in parentheses, as in A and D)?
3. Before looking at the table below, look through the list of disciplines and indicate, for each, whether you think they tend to make more use of integral citations (I) or non-integral citations (NI) in research writing?
_____ Applied linguistics
Now, look at the findings from a study by Hyland (1999), which examined the use of different types of citations (surface forms) in different disciplines.
4. Were you surprised by the different usage patterns?
5. Why do you think Biology makes such limited use of integral citations?
6. Philosophy is the only discipline in the table that uses integral citations more often that non-integral. Why do you think philosophy scholars might have a preference for integral citations?
In the activity for Due Date 23, you were introduced to a student sample Literature Review on the impacts of haze pollution in China. Take a look at the following excerpts from the same Literature Review. Both of them incorporate multiple sources.
7. Boldface any integral citations and underline any non-integral citations.
8. Why do you think the writer chose the form that they did in these excerpts?
As hot social issues leading to serious public health consequences, haze pollution in China has caught the attention of the environmentalists, chemists, medical doctors, economists, political scientists, journalists, policy makers and general public. The current researchers have reached a consensus that long-term exposure to PM2. 5 will lead to serious health consequences like increased mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory effects (US EPA 2012, WHO 2013).
In light of the severe haze pollution in China, the aim of this study is to examine the long term and short term health impacts caused by the haze pollution. For this purpose, articles incorporates research on an overall picture of health impacts of haze like Haynie’s (2017) article and Jia & Wang’s article (2017) , as well as independent case study like Zhang et.al’s article (2014). These sources, although both of them provided only glimpses on the controversial issue, serve as illuminating starting point of current research and conclusions.
Using one of the sources you have found for your literature review, complete the following activity.
9. Boldface the integral citations and underline the non-integral citations. Which seem to be more common? Did this surprise you?
10. Identify a few examples of summary and a few examples of synthesis in the paper. Do the summary examples tend to use integral or non-integral citations? What about the synthesis? Why do you think they use these patterns?
11. Where are citations most commonly found in the paper (e.g., in the introduction, literature review, methodology, etc.)? Why do you think this is the case?