end you 3 examples i want may essay similar to them, you have to pick one topic
Write a 1500 word essay on one of the following topics. Depth of understanding, clarity of argument and economy of expression will be rewarded. Remember, your job is to answer the essay question – do not just summaries the research papers/textbook/lectures/tutorials! And of course, Make sure your essay is on topic, i.e., that it really speaks to the issue you of your essay question. It is important to write a coherent argument – the opening paragraphs should tell your reader where the essay is heading, brief pointers along the way should clearly indicate what the evidence implies and how it relates to the essay question, and a concluding paragraph (or two) should make your answer to the question and position on the issue clear. Only include research evidence that is relevant to the topic, and thus builds a compelling answer to the essay question. Evidence of having read (and understood!) at least five experimental papers (and one or more review papers/book chapters) is expected for this essay. Starting references are provided for the essay, however citing these papers is NOT a marking criterion! Make sure you base your essay on reliable academic resources (i.e., original journal articles you have read. Hint: Wikipedia is NOT a reliable academic resource!).
Scope of the Essay —Neural aetiology/biological basis = neural (brain) causes of the behavioral problems observed focussing on the major neurotransmitter implicated in essay topic —Focus on other lines of evidence e.g. imaging and receptor binding studies —This means that you will not be talking about the role of genetics nor providing a historical overview
Terminology — Technical terms and abbreviations must be defined. – E.g., Positron emission tomography (PET) —Do not start a sentence with an abbreviation or a numeral. – Not: PET scans have shown. – Not: 3 neurotransmitters are important. — Write only in third person, no “I / me / we”.
Terminology —Do not use terms such as ‘proven’ or ‘fact’. – Not “The fact has been proven” – Instead say “The idea is supported by such and such evidence.” – Or “The findings are consistent with the idea of such and such…” —Authors ‘stated’, ‘argued’ or ‘reported’ is preferable to ‘believe’. —Avoid flowery writing – this is a scientific essay, not an article from a magazine. — Terms such as ‘significant’ and ‘correlations’ should only be used in reference to statistics. – Significant → Important – Correlation → Relationship /association
—Do not use terms such as ‘proven’ or ‘fact’. – Not “The fact has been proven” – Instead say “The idea is supported by such and such evidence.” – Or “The findings are consistent with the idea of such and such…” —Authors ‘stated’, ‘argued’ or ‘reported’ is preferable to ‘believe’
Paragraphs Should Contain —One argument / line of evidence only (not six different topics in the one paragraph). —An introductory sentence that tells the reader what the paragraph is about. — Minimum 2 references (original research) —Content of these articles should be synthesised into one coherent section (no 2 individual summaries) —A concluding sentence explaining how the information is relevant
TOPIC 1: The behavioural and biological effects of Methamphetamine use.
Fitzpatrick RE, Rubenis AJ, Lubman DI, Verdejo-Garcia A. (2020). Cognitive deficits in methamphetamine addiction: Independent contributions of dependence and intelligence. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 1;209:107891
Chiang M et al. (2019). Methamphetamine-associated psychosis: Clinical presentation, biological basis, and treatment options. Human Psychopharmacology. 34(5):e2710.
Yui K, Ikemoto S, Ishiguro T, Goto K. Studies of amphetamine or methamphetamine psychosis in Japan: relation of methamphetamine psychosis to schizophrenia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Sep;914:1-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2000.tb05178.x. PMID: 11085303
Guerin AA, Bonomo Y, Lawrence AJ, Baune BT, NestlerEJ, Rossell SL, Kim JH. Cognition and Related Neural Findings on Methamphetamine Use Disorder: Insights and Treatment Implications From Schizophrenia Research. Front Psychiatry. 2019 Dec 17;10:880. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00880. PMID: 31920743; PMCID: PMC6928591
Wearne TA, Cornish JL. A Comparison of Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis and Schizophrenia: A Review of Positive, Negative, and Cognitive Symptomatology. Front Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 10;9:491. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00491. PMID: 30364176; PMCID: PMC6191498.
TOPIC 2: The behavioural and biological effects of PCP use.
Javitt, D. C., Zukin, S. R., Heresco-Levy, U., & Umbricht, D. (2012). Has an angel shown the way? Etiological and therapeutic implications of the PCP/NMDA model of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin, 38(5), 958–966.
Cadinu D, Grayson B, Podda G, Harte MK, Doostdar N, Neill JC. NMDA receptor antagonist rodent models for cognition in schizophrenia and identification of novel drug treatments, an update. Neuropharmacology. 2018 Nov;142:41-62. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.045. Epub 2017 Nov 28. PMID: 29196183.
Mouri A, Noda Y, Enomoto T, Nabeshima T. Phencyclidine animal models of schizophrenia: approaches from abnormality of glutamatergic neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. Neurochem Int. 2007 JulSep;51(2-4):173-84. doi: 10.1016/j.neuint.2007.06.019. Epub 2007 Jun 27. PMID: 17669558.
Broberg B. et al. (2013). A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Behavioral Brain Research. 1; 250:1-8.
Lodge D. and Mercier (2015). Ketamine and phencyclidine: the good, the bad and the unexpected. British Journal of Pharmacology. 172: 4254-4276.
Steinpreis R. (1996). The behavioral and neurochemical effects of phencyclidine in humans and animals: some implications for modelling psychosis. Behavioral Brain Research. 74(1-2):45-55