CJ 642: Cybercrime and Cybersecurity
Dr. Abigail Novak
304 Mayes Hall, School of Applied Sciences, Department of Legal Studies, The University of Mississippi, 84 Dormitory Row West
Office Hours- Monday, 1:00-4:00 p.m., Wednesday, 12:00-2:00 p.m. via email
COURSE MEETING TIMES AND LOCATION:
8 weeks (online)
This course is intended to investigate cybercrime and cybersecurity. Specific attention will be given to the examination of threats to cybersecurity, national security and cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and cybersecurity policies and legal issues.
Upon successful completion of the course, students should be able to:
Define cyberspace, cybercrime, and cybersecurity
Discuss various threats to cybersecurity
Discuss how cyberterrorism and cybercrime relate to national security
Identify policies and legal issues pertaining to cybercrime and cybersecurity
Kremling, J., & Sharp Parker, A.M. (2018). Cyberspace, Cybersecurity, and Cybercrime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Syllabus Quiz- There will be one syllabus quiz due by the end of the first week of the semester. The quiz will consist of five multiple choice questions.
Exams –There will be 2 exams over the course of the semester. You will have 90 minutes to complete each exam. Exams will be open book and will consist of a mixture of multiple choice and short answer questions, with forty multiple choice questions and two short answer questions per exam. Exam grades may or may not be curved at the discretion of the instructor.
Discussion Board Posts – Discussion board postings are an integral part of the course. You must post your own responses weekly to the discussion board and must read and respond to at least two other student’s posting. Responses must be more than “I agree.” They should be substantive and should reference reading assignments, web references, lecture notes or outside resources. Every post must follow English grammar rules. Be respectful of others’ ideas. Do not make insulting or inflammatory statements to any class members. Rude, obscene, or disrespectful posts will not be tolerated. Part of the nature of this class is for participants to help each other troubleshoot problems and develop critical-thinking skills. Working through questions on the discussion forum is an excellent method to develop proficiency in these areas.
Paper –Each student must select a topic we cover in the course and conduct a brief review of relevant legal and social science literature on the topic using three (3) primary source, peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles that are not otherwise assigned as part of the required readings for the course. Students must summarize each of their three sources and reflect on each source in light of the material in the textbook, assigned readings, and what we cover in class, discussing similarities and differences in conclusions and integrating the source’s findings with course materials. Papers should be at least 8 pages in length; it is anticipated that papers will be approximately 10 to 12 double-spaced, typed pages in length (in 12-point font with one-inch margins).
If you have questions about your grade on quiz, discussion, paper, etc. you have ONE WEEK after the grade is posted in which to come to me to question your grade (that is, to ask for point changes based on justifiable criteria— except for the last week, because grades are due within a few days, in which case you have 48 hours). After that time period, the grade stands (even if you did not check the grade until after that time period). Should you raise serious questions about how something was graded, I reserve the right to re-grade your entire assignment (meaning your grade may go up or down). I recommend waiting 24 hours after a grade is posted to email with a question; often, initial emails are reactionary, and waiting 24 hours allows sufficient time to process. If you do choose to email me regarding a grade within 24 hours of its posting, be sure to use professional language in your email.
I do not bump grades or provide extra credit to raise grades at the end of the semester because I believe in being as fair and transparent in grading as possible. Please ensure you do your best work on each assignment and ask for help as needed throughout the semester.
As a rule, I do not speak with parents regarding grades or assignments. As college students, you are adults, and capable of managing your own academic affairs. If you have questions about your grade, please email me yourself or come to office hours to discuss things.
Table 1: Graded Assessments and their Values
Exam # 1
Exam # 2
Discussion Board Posts (5 at 5% each)
FINAL COURSE GRADING SCALE:
Your final grade will be based on a modified +/- grading system:
92 to 100 A
90 to 91.9 A-
88 to 89.9 B+
82 to 87.9 B
80 to 81.9 B-
77 to 79.9 C+
70 to 76.9 C
60 to 69.9 D
Less than 60 F
ATTENDANCE AND ATTENDANCE VERIFICATION STATEMENT: Students must attend the first meeting of every course for which they are registered, unless they obtain prior departmental approval. Without such approval, a student who is absent from the first class meeting may be dropped from that class by the dean of the school or college with the responsibility for the course. More than three unexcused absences is considered excessive. A student who incurs excessive unexcused absences may receive a grade of F for the course, and, in addition, may be dismissed from the class upon recommendation of the instructor and approval by the student’s academic dean. When it appears to an instructor that a student has discontinued a class without officially dropping the course, the instructor will report this fact to the student’s academic dean. The university reserves the right to dismiss from the university any student who has been excessively absent from multiple courses.
Excused absences distinguish between anticipated and unanticipated absences. Anticipated absences might be associated with civic responsibilities (e.g., jury duty or military service); official University competitions, performances, or travel; religious observations; or certain scheduled medical procedures. Unanticipated absences might occur due to inclement weather, accidents, illnesses besetting the student or immediate family members, or death of a family member or close friend.
MAKE-UP WORK: If you miss a submission deadline because of participation in university-sanctioned activities, arrangements to make-up missed work can be made by contacting the course instructor. Makeup work requires documentation. If you experience technological difficulties that prohibit you from completing assignments, you must document this via a screenshot or another comparable method.
LATE SUBMISSIONS: Written assignments are to be submitted on the due date. In cases of planned excused absences, late work will be accepted by an agreed upon alternate due date. Work submitted late for other reasons will be penalized 15% for each day late. Work will no longer be accepted 72 hours after the due date.
ELECTRONICS: The use of cell phones during class is prohibited unless approved by the instructor in advance. Once class begins all cell phones are to be put away out of sight and on silent. iPads and laptops are approved for use during class for taking notes and accessing PowerPoint presentations. If a student violates the electronics policy it will result in the right to use electronics being taken away from that student. During tests cell phones are prohibited. Any student found violating this policy will be given a zero (0).
ACADEMIC HONESTY: Students are expected to adhere to the University of Mississippi Creed and the Standards of Honesty as described in Policy Code ACA.AR.600.001 and written in the M Book. If you violate the Standards of Honesty, you will be reported and subject to the appropriate sanction which may include expulsion from the University.
Citation Style –Because this is a criminology and criminal justice course, students are required to use the citation style and format of either the American Psychological Association (APA) or the American Sociological Association (ASA). It is acceptable to cite legal materials (cases, statutes, regulations, etc.) in accordance with the style specified in The Bluebook.
Avoiding Plagiarism – Some students truly do not understand what plagiarism is, and therefore plagiarize unwittingly or unintentionally. But ignorance is not an excuse for unethical academic conduct. To combat such ignorance, here are rules and resources to help you avoid any problems with plagiarism. Of course, these rules apply regardless of the citation form or style you may be using. Any instances of plagiarism will result in a zero on the assignment, and other sanctions as appropriate.
Direct Quotations – Whenever you directly quote someone else, you must provide a citation to the source of the material from which you are quoting. Moreover, you must put the material in quotation marks or otherwise set it off in an indented quote so the reader knows what words are yours and what words are quoted. It is unacceptable to use the words of others and only partially quote the original source. This is true even if you provide citation to the source both in text and in your references section!
Paraphrasing/Indirect Quotations – Whenever you indirectly quote someone else (i.e., you paraphrase the work of another), you must provide a citation to the source of the material from which you are paraphrasing. Simply changing the structure of a sentence, or a few words in a sentence so that the sentence you write is not an exact quote from the original source does not mean a citation is not needed. This is because the idea you are expressing is not your own, but rather someone else’s.
Using Other’s Ideas – Even if you compose an entire paragraph of writing in your own words (i.e., neither quoted nor paraphrased), if the idea you are expressing in that paragraph is not your own, original idea, you must provide a citation to the source from which you obtained this idea.
Collaborative Work – If you collaborate on any work with someone else and fail to acknowledge that collaboration, you are guilty of plagiarism. If you have received permission from you professor to collaborate on some assignment, be sure that all of the contributor’s names appear on the submission.
Altering or Revising Another’s Work – If you alter or revise the work done by someone and submit that work as your own, you have plagiarized. Similarly, if you allow someone else to alter or revise work that you have done and then allow that person to submit it as his or her own work, you are both guilty of plagiarism. Work that is not entirely your own must be credited by citation, both in text and in your references page.
Altering or Revising Your Own Prior Work – You should also be aware that altering or revising your own work that was prepared for another class or another professor, and not bringing it to the attention of the professor to whom you are submitting the revised work is also academic dishonesty. If, for example, you have two classes that require a term paper, and you can write one paper that meets the requirements of both classes, you may not submit that paper to both professors unless you get permission to do so in advance from both professors. Similarly, if you wrote a paper several semesters ago that can be revised and submitted in satisfaction of a paper requirement for a course in which you are currently enrolled, doing so is academic dishonesty unless you get the advanced permission of your professor to do so. The reason this is dishonest is that it is not an original work prepared in satisfaction for the requirements on the course you are currently taking.
DISABILITY ACCESS AND INCLUSION: The University of Mississippi is committed to the creation of inclusive learning environments for all students. If there are aspects of the instruction or design of this course that result in barriers to your full inclusion and participation or to accurate assessment of your achievement, please contact the course instructor as soon as possible. Barriers may include, but are not necessarily limited to, time limits, difficulty with the acquisition of lecture content, inaccessible web content or the use of non-captioned or non-transcribed video and audio files. Students must also contact Student Disability Services at 662-915-7128 or sds.olemiss.edu so that office can 1) explore if barrier removal is necessary; 2) provide you, if approved, with Instructor Notification forms; 3) facilitate the removal of curricular barriers; and 4) ensure you have equal access to the same opportunities for success that are available to all students.
The University of Mississippi is committed to ensuring equal access to an education for enrolled or admitted students who have disabilities under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), and the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008. The office serves those with physical, nonphysical, and mental disabilities. University policy calls for reasonable accommodations to be made for eligible students with verified disabilities on an individualized and flexible basis. It is the responsibility of any student with a disability who requests a reasonable accommodation to contact the Office of Student Disability Services (662-915-7128) in 234 Martindale Center to be verified with that office. SDS will then contact the instructor through the student by means of an Instructor Notification of Classroom Accommodations form. For more information, please visit their website at http://www.olemiss.edu/depts/sds.
TITLE IX COMPLIANCE STATEMENT: The University of Mississippi is committed to protecting students from sexual discrimination, sexual assault, stalking, sexual harassment, and relationship violence. If you are affected by any of these issues, please reach out to the Title IX Coordinator at 662-915-7045. The University may be able to offer services and assistance. Also, the Title IX Coordinator may contact you if you write about or report any of these concerns to any faculty or staff members. (Faculty and Staff are required by law to report sexual discrimination, but you are not required to follow up on the report.) If you are dealing with any other issue involving unlawful discrimination, please contact the Office of Equal Opportunity and Regulatory Compliance at 662-915-7735.
UM CREED: The University of Mississippi is a community of learning dedicated to nurturing excellence in intellectual inquiry and personal character in an open and diverse environment. It is imperative that you adhere to the UM Creed: As a voluntary member of this community:
I believe in respect for the dignity of each person
I believe in fairness and civility
I believe in personal and professional integrity
I believe in academic honesty
I believe in academic freedom
I believe in good stewardship of our resources
I pledge to uphold these values and encourage others to follow my example.
LAST WEEK POLICY: The University has also recently adopted a statement about the Wednesday through Friday of the week before Finals Week. According to this statement, faculty are not to give major exams (constituting more than 10% of the final grade) in undergraduate courses during these three days.
STUDENT IDENTITY: Federal regulations, our accrediting agency (SACS) and university policies require that safeguards are used to ensure that the student who receives the academic course credit is actually the person doing the work. You will need to present your student ID before taking proctored exams and your instructor may verify your identity through live or virtual meetings, or by using an identity verification program.
IT APPROPRIATE USE POLICY: The University of Mississippi is committed to maintaining its leadership position in the use of computer and communication technologies to facilitate learning. The University promises to provide, as rapidly and as economically as is feasible, the following:
• to students, access to their information anywhere on campus.
• to faculty, the resources necessary to enhance teaching, learning and research.
• to staff, the tools necessary for a responsive service environment.
The University will normally respect privacy and attempt to safeguard information but cannot guarantee these privileges absolutely: the University can examine, at any time, anything that is stored on or transmitted by University-owned equipment.
The University reserves the right to limit access to its networks when applicable university policies or codes, contractual obligations, or state or federal laws are violated but does not monitor or generally restrict the content of material transported across those networks.
The University reserves the right to remove or limit access to material posted on university owned computers when applicable university policies or codes, contractual obligations, or state or federal laws are violated, but does not monitor the content of material posted on university owned computers.
CLASSROOM HEALTH POLICIES:
Properly worn face coverings or face masks are required inside all University buildings. Face-to-face sessions will not proceed unless all present have properly worn face coverings or face masks. (Students who have a diagnosed health concern which interferes with the wearing of face coverings or face masks may contact the Student Disability Services (SDS) Office to seek a University-approved accommodation. Please contact SDS at https://sds.olemiss.edu/ for more information.). Students and faculty must complete the daily symptom checker before any face-to-face class meeting. Students and faculty must quarantine for 14 days if they have a positive COVID-19 test, possible virus exposure, or display any symptoms related to COVID-19. Students with COVID-19 should seek medical attention at the Student Health Center and contact their instructor to let them know that they are sick, quarantined, or have some other health-related absence. If students test positive for COVID-19 at any health care facility, they must contact the Student Health Center at 662-915-7274. (Faculty and staff should contact the Employees Health Service at 662-915-6550.) University Health Services will coordinate contact tracing to lessen the likelihood of spread. Upon entering the classroom, students and instructors should use provided cleaning supplies to wipe down the surfaces that they will touch during the class.
Students have been informed of the COVID-19 guidelines for the school year (including face covering, social distancing, hand hygiene, etc.); therefore, students will not be allowed in classroom spaces when they are out of compliance with these guidelines. The University’s Academic Conduct and Discipline Policy states that “disorderly behavior that disrupts the academic environment violates the standard of fair access to the academic experience.” Failure to adhere to health requirements during the COVID-19 emergency will be deemed as disruptive to the classroom and will be enforced following the Academic Conduct and Discipline procedures. The University of Mississippi has adopted a tiered disciplinary protocol for nonadherence to COVID-19 health requirements. This disciplinary protocol is maintained by the Office of Conflict Resolution and Student Conduct (https://conflictresolution.olemiss.edu/).
The University must have accurate contact information, including cell phone numbers, to facilitate student communications and contact tracing. Students should check and update their University contact information (https://olemiss.edu/mystudentprofile). Students are encouraged to visit the University’s Keep Learning site (https://olemiss.edu/keeplearning/) to access information and resources related to COVID-19 support. The site provides links to University student services to facilitate and support learning. Students with diagnosed health concerns that may affect their compliance with COVID-19 health requirements should contact UM’s Student Disability Services (SDS) Office (https://sds.olemiss.edu) to see if they are eligible for an SDS accommodation as soon as possible.
OTHER IMPORTANT POLICIES:
Extra Credit – There will be no extra credit offered.
Copyright – All class materials are designed by the instructor and all class lectures are the intellectual property of the instructor and are protected by federal copyright law. Any unauthorized copying—including video-recording, audio-recording, and stenographic transcription of class lectures—is strictly prohibited. All rights are reserved by the instructor. Written permission must be secured from the instructor in order to sell the instructor’s oral communication in the form of notes. Notes must have the note-taker’s name as well as the instructor’s name, the course number, and the date.
What To Call Me – Please refer to me as “Professor Novak” or “Dr. Novak”.
Email – Please include the course name or number in the subject line for all emails relating to course materials. I will make every effort to respond to emails within 24 hours during the week, and 48 hours for emails sent on the weekend. Please note, I try to limit my email access to business hours (8:00 a.m. – 6:00 p.m.). If you email me outside of these hours, please do not anticipate an immediate response. This means I will not be available by email to answer questions pertaining to assignments after business hours. For assignments due on the weekend, the last opportunity to ask questions via email is Friday by 5:00 p.m. For weekday assignments due at 11:59 p.m., the last opportunity to ask questions via email is 5:00 p.m. If you send a last minute email regarding an assignment outside of business hours, you will not receive a response. This DOES NOT permit late submission. Be sure you understand all assignment requirements prior to the close of business.
When writing an email, please be sure to use professional language. Before emailing, please do everything in your power to answer your own question- check the syllabus, check the course website, and speak to classmates. If you are unable to solve your problem, then please feel free to reach out. As a rule, I do not speak with parents regarding grades or assignments. As college students, you are adults, and capable of managing your own academic affairs. If you have questions about your grade, please email me yourself or come to office hours to discuss things.
COPYRIGHT AND FAIR USE:
1) Materials used in connection with this course may be subject to copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code. Under certain Fair Use circumstances specified by law, copies may be made for private study, scholarship, or research. Electronic copies should not be shared with unauthorized users. Violations of copyright laws could subject you to federal and state civil penalties and criminal liability as well as disciplinary action under University policies. 2) The materials on this course Web site are only for the use of students enrolled in this course for purposes associated with this course and may not be retained or further disseminated.
I view this course syllabus as an educational contract between me and the students in the course. Accordingly, I will make every effort to avoid changing the course schedule but the possibility exists that unforeseen events will make syllabus changes necessary. I therefore reserve the right to make changes to the syllabus, other than to the attendance and grading policies.
Here is an outline of the material we may cover. We may vary from this schedule depending upon the time the professor feels we need to spend on any topic. Therefore, use this schedule with the caveat that assignments may be changed by the professor any given class session.
Introduction post – due 6/1 by 11:59 p.m.
Discussion Board #1- Initial post due 6/5 by 11:59 p.m., response due 6/7 by 11:59 p.m.
Syllabus quiz due 6/7 by 11:59 p.m.
Chapters 1 and 2;
Holt & Bossler, 2014
6/8 – 6/14
Threats: Computers as targets
Discussion Board #2- initial post due 6/12 by 11:59 p.m., response due 6/14 by 11:59 p.m.
Dodel & Mesch, 2017
6/15 – 6/21
Threats: Organized Crime and Criminals
Exam 1- due no later than 6/21 by 11:59 p.m.
Wang et al., 2021
Broadhurst et al., 2013
6/22 – 6/27
Threats: Hacktivists & Nation States
Discussion Board #3- Initial post due 6/26 by 11:59 p.m., response due 6/27 by 11:59 p.m.
Williams et al., 2019
7/5 – 7/12
Discussion Board #4 – Initial post due 7/10 by 11:59 p.m., response due 7/12 by 11:59 p.m.
Tatar et al., 2014
Luiijf et al., 2013
7/13 – 7/19
Cyberterrorism & the Deep Web
Discussion Board #5- Initial post due 7/17 by 11:59 p.m., response due 7/19 by 11:59 p.m.
Chapters 7 & 8
Jarvis & Macdonald, 2015
7/20 – 7/26
Operations & Policies
Exam 2- Due no later than 7/26 by 11:59 p.m.
Chapters 9 & 10
Cockroft et al., 2018
7/27 – 7/30
Paper- due no later than 7/30 by 11:59 p.m.
Broadhurst, R., Grabosky, P., Alazab, M., Bouhours, B., Chon, S., & Da, C. (2013). Crime in cyberspace: offenders and the role of organized crime groups. Available at SSRN 2211842.
Cockcroft, T., Schreuders, Z. C., & Trevorrow, P. (2018). Police cybercrime training: perceptions, pedagogy, and policy. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice.
Dodel, M., & Mesch, G. (2017). Cyber-victimization preventive behavior: A health belief model approach. Computers in Human behavior, 68, 359-367.
Holt, T. J., & Bossler, A. M. (2014). An assessment of the current state of cybercrime scholarship. Deviant Behavior, 35(1), 20-40.
Jarvis, L., & Macdonald, S. (2015). What is cyberterrorism? Findings from a survey of researchers. Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(4), 657-678.
Luiijf, H. A. M., Besseling, K., Spoelstra, M., & De Graaf, P. (2011, September). Ten national cyber security strategies: A comparison. In International Workshop on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (pp. 1-17). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Tabansky, L. (2012). Cybercrime: A national security issue?. Military and Strategic Affairs, 4(3), 117-136.
Tatar, Ü., Çalik, O., Çelik, M., & Karabacak, B. (2014). A comparative analysis of the national cyber security strategies of leading nations. In International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security (p. 211). Academic Conferences International Limited.
Virtanen, S. M. (2017). Fear of cybercrime in Europe: Examining the effects of victimization and vulnerabilities. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 24(3), 323-338.
Wall, D. S. (1998). Catching cybercriminals: policing the Internet. International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 12(2), 201-218.
Wang, P., Su, M., & Wang, J. (2021). Organized crime in cyberspace: How traditional organized criminal groups exploit the online peer-to-peer lending market in China. The British Journal of Criminology, 61(2), 303-324.
Weimann, G. (2005). Cyberterrorism: The sum of all fears?. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28(2), 129-149.
Williams, M. L., Levi, M., Burnap, P., & Gundur, R. V. (2019). Under the corporate radar: Examining insider business cybercrime victimization through an application of routine activities theory. Deviant Behavior, 40(9), 1119-1131.
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